Why have an Integrated Library System (ILS)?
Most libraries now automate the functions of acquisitions, serial check in, cataloguing, and circulation. The advantage in having *integrated* system is that work done at any one of these stages of materials being added to the collection, carries over to other stages. The cost and labour savings of not having to repeat the same tasks at each step is considerable. Having an integrated system with one master record also allows maintenance work, e.g. added copies and volumes, removing copies and titles, recording items as missing, can be decentralized. A good ILS will also assist in such tasks as statistics gathering for reports.
There is an opensource (free) ILS: https://koha-community.org/
Questions to ask an ILS vendor from a cataloguing perspective:
At the TOP of the list is, can this ILS load and download full MARC? While almost all systems can load MARC of course, it is astounding how many can't download MARC when time come for system migrations. We have libraries coming crying to us when their downloaded records have all 1XX and 7XX as concatenated as "Author".
Second would be, how hard wired and adjustable is the OPAC display? Visit Yee's recommendations for display of search results and records:
To her suggestions I would add the ability to return subject search results in inverse chronological order, and the ability to be taken to a browse list when there is not direct match for any search. Some feel her suggestion for numbered hit lists is out-of-date.
Does the cataloguing module have macros, or may macro software such as KeyExpress be used? It is important that MARC tag and content may be entered with one keystroke.
May OPAC labels be changed or eliminated when a lawyer hits the roof over a criminal defendant being labelled "Author"?
In terms of search keys, basic are author, title, subject, classed and keyword. How are genre headings handled? Are genre terms in the subject search and/or could it be a separate search (perhaps indexing MARC 655, 245$h, and 6XX$v or their Bibframe equivalents)? How are series handled (included in Title (440, 830) and Author (800, 810, 811) searches? Can they also be a separate search? Are 440$t, 505$t, 7XX$t, and 8XX$t included in the title search? Is 240 included in the title search (the first indicator which allowed you to determine this is obsolete)?
May authorities be loaded and searched? Will changing an authority automatically change that heading in all bibliographic records? Failing that, is global change of records possible, e.g., may "Afro-American" be replaced by "African American" in all 650 headings with one command?
May mapping be adjusted? The mapping we suggest to our customers is as follows:
Unless otherwise noted, map to the named OPAC field given beside the field number. Where no subfields are given, map all. There are no standards for these labels, so the names in software systems vary. Some software will allow you to change the names.
[A strong case can be made for suppressing the labels, and displaying the bibliographic information in ISBD order with ISBD punctuation, like unit catalogue card. This creates more space of bibliographic information. The labels are often misleading. A 100 labelled Author may be a composer, or a criminal defendant, for example. A 700 labelled Added author may be a translator, an illustrator, and editor, or even a Festschrift honouree.]
Most fields which are not mapped may simply be left in the record. The only fields which should be deleted are those which apply to a particular copy in a record acquired from an individual library's catalogue.
*means the field is indexed
001 Record sequence number*
This is a local field supplied by your software. The previous 001 may be moved to 035, unless it is the same as the 010. 035 is usually not mapped nor indexed.
050 LCC and 082 DDC
Most do not map these, but some map them to "Knowledge numbers" for class searching.
090$a Local call number*
This field varies; some libraries use a different 09X, or a number in the 8XX or 9XX range.
100 Personal author*
110 Corporate author*
100, 110, and 111 are usually combined in a "Author" search, along with
700, 710, 711, 800, 810, and 811.
130 Uniform title* (as main entry)
240 Uniform title* (as filing title after 1XX)
245$a Title* $b subtitle $h[general material designation] $n number
Map to "Title".
245$c Statement of responsibility
246 Alternate title*
When 1st indicator is 1, good systems display a note and vary the name of this field based on the 246 2nd indicator: 4 = Cover title, 5 = Added title page title, 6 = Caption title, 7 = Running title, 8 = Spine title. Other sources of title are recorded in $i before the title in $a, with 1st indicator 1. The 246 should be indexed by the title search along with 130, 240, 245, 730, and 740. Many libraries include 505$t, 7XX$t, 8XX$t, 780$t, 785$t, 440, 830, and 840 in the title search.
247 Previous title.*
May be found in older records for serials entered under most recent title. Used in current records for loose-leaf services and websites which have changed title. Map to "Title".
250 $a Edition $b Statement of responsibility for edition
[Between 250 and 260 there are some media specific fields: 254 music, 255 maps, 256 computer files; if you have those media, those fields should be mapped to "Media specific information". See also 362.]
260 in older AACR2 records: $a Place $b Publisher $c Date $e Place $f Manufacturer $g Date
Some map these to different named fields, others to one called "Publishing information" or "Imprint".
Beginning September 1, 2002, it was possible to have multiple imprints, with original publisher having 1st indicator blank, intermediate publisher having first indicator 2, and current or last publisher having 1st indicator 3. Vendors should develop the ability for libraries to determine in which order they appear. Subfield $3 (entered before $a) gives the dates covered by that imprint.
RDA introduced 264 1 publisher, 264 2 distributor, 264 3 manufacturer, and 264 4 copyright date.
300 Collation $a Extent and smd $b Illustration, etc. $c Size $e
Accompanying material Since 300$a may contain pagings, volumes, or other extent, as well as specific material designation, it is probably best not to break this field up with labels for its parts.
336-338 RDA media terms. In the absence of icons, [338 : 336] should be displayed at head of other data, 338 first because it most often matches the earlier GMD.
34X often duplicate data in other fields such as 538.
362 Serial numbering/dates; usually printed between 25X and 260 on cards
410 Old from of corporate series entry. Cf. 810.
440 $a Series* $v numbering (not in current records)
490 $a Series statement $v numbering
Some libraries do index 490 0 (not traced), but not 490 1 (traced differently in 8XX) because that form might conflict with a cross reference.
[All 5XX fields may simply be mapped to "Notes". Some prefer to break out some notes with their own labels as follows. The list is not exhaustive. Those marked "+" are more likely to be separately mapped.]
502 Thesis note
503 Bibliographic history (not in current records)
Some newer 505 notes have subfields, e.g., $t for title, which could be mapped to the title index; the $t would need to be after any initial article for this to be effective. Some systems follow the 1st indicator for a print constant: 0 = Contents, 1 = Incomplete contents, 2 = Partial contents.
506 Restrictions on access
Some restrictions also in 540.
507 Map scale
508 Production notes
515 Numbering peculiarities
518 Date, time and place of event
521 Target audience
525 How supplemented
530 Other physical forms
536 Funding information
538 Systems details+
546 Language of text
550 Issuing body
555 Cumulative index
580 Relation to other publications
[All 6XX fields have a second indicator for the type of subject heading: 0 = LCSH, 1 = LC Children's, 2 = Mesh, 3 = NAL, 4 = Local, 5 = NLC, 6 = NLC French, 7 = Other (with source in $2), 8 = Local French, 9 = RVM. You should map only the one(s) you want, or if that can't be done, delete those you don't want. All subfields except $2 should be mapped, in the order in which they appear. In some OPAC software, the repeating field to be used for 6XX headings is called DESC or Descriptor rather than Subject.]
Not all these subfields appear in each 6XX, but if they must be individually listed, it is simplest to list all for each. Remember for 600, 610, and 611 you may have an author/title subject heading, so you may wish to also index $t and subsequent fields as subject titles.
600 Personal subject*
610 Corporate subject*
611 Conference subject*
630 Title subject*
651 Geographic subject*
655 Genre heading* (still usually mapped to Subject index, but intended for a possible future genre index, which might also include 6xx$v)
All the subdivisions listed for 6XX except $v should also be mapped for 7XX. 700, 710, 711, 780, and 785. These may be author/title entries; you may wish to map $t and subsequent fields to the title index as well.
700 Personal added author*
710 Corporate added author*
711 Conference added entry*
730 Uniform title*
740 Added title*
Used for related and analytical titles.
780$t Former title*
If 1st indicator is 0, this should also produce a note based on 2nd indicator: 0 = Continues, 1 = Continues in part, 2 = Supersedes, 3 = Supersedes in part, 5 = Absorbed, 7 = Separated from.
785$t Succeeding title*
If lst indicator is 0, this should also produce a note based on 2nd indicator: 0 = Continued by, 1 = Continued in part by, 2 = Superseded in part by, 4 = Absorbed by, 5 = Absorbed in part by, 8 = Changed back to.
800 Personal series* $a Author $t Title $x ISSN $v number
810 Corporate series* $a Corporate author $t Title $x ISSN $v number. Map and index 410 and 810 as Series; 410$a and 810$a as Author; 410 and 810$t as Title.
830 Series* $a Title $x ISSN $v number
840 Series* $a Title $x ISSN $v number (Not in current records)
Now with RDA, consider provisions RDA will require, e.g.:
-Global change again, with "O.T." and "N.T." to remove or spell out and possibly ""Dept." to spell out, etc.
-Will entry points with and without $e interfile or create split files?