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MRIs: AACR2 Rule Interpretations

Chapter 1: General Description


Delete, from contents: 1.1C. General material designation

Add, to Contents: 1.1C. Media terms

1.0A4 Delete second sentence

Delete sixth paragraph and revise second and third examples to read:

[London, England] : [Phipps], [1870]

[Second edition]. – [London, England] : Thomsons, 1973.

Replace fourth example with:

The world of A.L.A. – Chicago, Illinois : Farouche Press, 1999

not: The world of A.L.A.. – Chicago, Illinois : Farouche Press, 1999.


Delete third paragraph.

In fourth paragraph, revise b) to read:

b) media terms (see 1.1C)


Revise to read:

1.0F. Inaccuracies

1.0F1. In an area in which transcription from the item is required, transcribe an inaccuracy or misspelled word as found. Optionally , follow an inaccuracy with a correction in square brackets or supply missing letter(s) in square brackets.

The wolrd of television

The Paul Anthony Buck [Brick] lectures

Second edit[i]on

[RDA limits corrections to notes.]


Revise 1.1C in contents to read:

1.1C. Media terms


Delete [GMD] from all examples.


Delete [GMD] from all examples.


Revise examples to read:

The baby’s bouquet : a fresh bunch of old rhymes and tunes / arranged and decorated by Walter Crane ; the tunes collected and arranged by L.C. – London, England : Pan Books, 1974

56 pages : coloured illustrations ; 16 x 17 cm (A Piccolo book)

Facsimile of second edition, revised. London, England : George Routledge & Sons, 1877

ISBN 0-330-24089-7 : £0.60

Alice’s adventures under ground / by Lewis Carroll ; with a new introduction by Martin Gardner. – New York : Dover Publications, 1965

xiii, 91, [17] pages : illustrations, facsimiles ; 22 cm

Contents : Complete facsimile of the British Museum manuscript of Alice’s adventures under ground – Front and back matter of the Macmillan 1886 edition

Pre-Raphaelite drawings / by Dante Gabriel Rossetti ; [selected and introduced by] Andrea Rose. – Chicago, Illinois : University of Chicago Press, 1977

3 microfiches (251 frames) : all illustrations ; 10 x 15 cm + 1 booklet

Reproductions of 251 drawings from the Birmingham [England] City Museum


Change second line to read:

Enclose the media terms in square brackets


Revise first paragraph to read: 1.1A2. Sources of information. Take information recorded in this area from the chief source of information for the material to which the item belongs; and/or, if needed, from the other sources of information in the item, or supply information from outside the item. Enclose information supplied from outside the item in square brackets.

1.1B1 Add:

Transcribe errors in title as found. Do not insert "[sic]" or corrections. Record corrected title in a note and title added entry.*

Remove [sic]" from 9th example, and "[i.e. new]" from 10th example.

*(in MARC21, the note and added entry may be combined in 246, e.g., 246 1 $iCorrected stitle:$aWorld of television.)


Add example:

Sensation : a Lucille LeMieux novel


Add new paragraphs and examples

Give, for individual treaties and other formal agreements and collections of such agreements (see 21.35), a supplied title before the title proper consisting of Treaties, etc. and the date(s) of the treaty.

[Treaties, etc., 1966 March 3] Agreement between the government of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland and the kingdom of Denmark relating to the delimitation of the continental shelf between the two countries, London, 3 March 1963

[Treaties, etc., 1776-1949] Treaties and other international agreements of the United States of America, 1776-1949

[Treaties, etc., 1925] Concordat entre le Saint-Siège et la république de Pologne

Give, for separately published protocols, amendments, etc., ancillary to a treaty, etc. and collections of such protocols, etc., (see 21.35E), a supplied title before the title proper consisting of Treaties, etc. and the date(s) of the treaty or treaties and Protocols, etc ., followed by the date(s) of the protocol(s), etc.

[Treaties, etc., 1950. Protocols, etc., 1951 March 6] Amendments to the Convention for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms …

1.1C Delete and replace with:

1.1C. Media terms

1.1C1. choose at least one term from each of the two lists below.

For display. the terms may be enclosed in square brackets. Separate terms from different lists with a space semicolon space.  Separate two terms from the same list with a comma space. It is suggested that Carrier display before Content, because Carrier more often resembles legacy GMDs.

Preferably display media terms preceding all descriptive data in accord with International Bibliographic Description (ISBD) Area 0, or substitute icons based on the media terms or MARC21 fixed fields. Do display MARC21 33X $3 indication of what part of a resource the term applies. Do not display the NARC21 33X $2 subfield giving source of the term.

Some have opted to display content and carrier terms following collation (MARC21 tag order), not displaying media type. Some display content and carrier terms in one line with the label "Format:", since "Carrier:" as a label suggest an airline or other mode of transporation.


[online resource ; text]

[videodisc ; two- dimensional moving image]

[computer disc ; image, text]

If more than one term is needed from either list for a multipart resource, e.g., a book with a CD, precede the terms with an indication of the material specified, for example:

[Book: volume ; text : CD: computer disc : spoken word]

Separate media terms for differnt parts of a resource with a space colon space.

List 1, Carrier type (MARC21 338)

audio cartridge
audio cylinder
audio disc
sound-track reel
audio roll
audiotape ree

computer card
computer chip cartridge
\ computer disc
computer disc cartridge
computer tape cartridge
computer tape cassette
computer tape reel
online resource

aperture card
microfiche cassette
microfilm cartridge
microfilm cassette
microfilm reel
microfilm roll
microfilm slip

microscope slide

film cartridge
film cassette
film reel
film roll
filmstrip cartridge
overhead transparency
slide (for photographic slides

stereograph card
stereograph disc


*[Some kits may contain pieces requiring mediation; RDA would list each piece.]

video cartridge
videotape reel


List 2, Content type (MARC21 336)

[braille]*[cf. tactile text]

cartographic dataset
cartographic image
cartographic moving image
cartographic tactile image
cartographic tactile three-dimensional form
cartographic three-dimensional form;
computer dataset
computer program
[large print text]*

map [mixed]*

notated movement
notated music
performed musicVsounds
spoken word
still image

tactile image
tactile notated movement
tactile text [cf. braille]
tactile three- dimensional form
three-dimensional form
three-dimensional moving image
two-dimensional moving image

*["mixed" might be used for various pieces in a kit; RDA would list them separately; bracketed terms are MRI alternatives to longer RDA phrases, or missing terms.] 

[RDA offers three options for content terms: give all which apply, e.g., "text, still image" for an illustrated manifestation; all which are significant, e.g., "still image, text" for an art exhibition catalogue; or predominant only, e.g., either "text" or "still image", depending on which is a larger part of the manifestation. MARC21 has the option of repeating 336$a or repeating 336; repeating 336 is more common.] If desired, add a media type term from the following list to the terms taken from the preceding two lists. Give a media type term, if chosen, before the carrier and content terms and followed by a space, colon, space.

Do not display "unmediated". [microform : microfiche : map]

[electronic : online resource : text, image]

[Media content and carrier are core RDA elements. RDA uses "computer" rather than ISBD's Area 0 "electronic" as a media type. The carrier terms , "kit", and content terms "form", "globe", "image"., "large print text", "map", "mixed". "tactile", are not RDA terms. ISBD Area 0 content terms include "image (moving)" and "image (still)" rather than the longer RDA phrases.]

An alternate source of content and media terms is ISBD Area 0, with $2isbdcontent, $2isbdmedia:


Delete rule and examples.


Revise to read:

1.1F1. Transcribe statements of responsibility (other than those for motion pictures and videorecordings) appearing prominently in the item in the form in which they appear there. Give statements of responsibility for motion pictures and videorecordings in a note (see 7.7B6). If a statement of responsibility is taken from a source outside the item, enclose it in square brackets.


Delete rule F1.1F6. Substitute:

Transcribe the complete statement of responsibility, including all authors, their titles, "Jr'", "II", and optionally positions, and affiliations. Separate those having different functions , e.g., editor, illustrator, translator, by space semicolon space.

[[Omit positions and affiliations, so that the institutions will not be confused with corporate contributors.]

[RDA has the option to omit authors after the first for each function with "[and # others]" added.]"; do not adopt.]

[If more than 10, consider transcribing the first three for each function, and adding [et # others] ]


Reword to read: 1.1F7. If titles (including titles of nobility, address, honour, etc.), initials of societies, date(s) of founding, etc., are part of the statement of responsibility, include them.

Remove all other text. Retain examples, but revise the last three to read:

… / by Dr. Harry Smith.

… / sponsored by the Library Association (founded 1877)

… / by the late T.A. Rennard


Add, after the first two examples:

Optionally , devise a collective title and enclose it in square brackets.

[Essays and poems] Lord Macaulay’s essays ; and, Lays of ancient Rome

[Three plays] Major Barbara ; Captain Brassbound’s conversion ; Man and superman

Add, after the last two examples:

Optionally, devise a collective title and enclose it in square brackets.

[Maps of English towns] Dorchester / Dorset Historical Society.

Newton Abbot : places of interest. Sherbourne / Friends of Sherbourne.


Reword to read: 1.2A2. Sources of information. Take information recorded in this area from the chief source of information for the material to which the item belongs; and/or, if needed, from the other sources of information in the item, or supply information from outside the item. Enclose information supplied from outside the item in square brackets.


Reword to read:

1.2B1. Transcribe the edition statement as found.

Second edition.

Ny udgave.


Reword examples to read:

[Three asterisks] edition.

3 ème édition

(appears as 3 ème édition in the item)

[State] B

South-west gazette. – Somerset edition.

Subbuteo table soccer. – World Cup edition.

[New edition]

[Troisième édition]

[Second edition, partly revised]

Revised 1980 = Révision 1980.

Deuxième édition. = Second edition = Zweite Auflage.

Tweede herziene en verbeteren uitgave = Deuxième édition, révisé et corrige.

Le Western : textes rassemblés et présentés par Henri Agel. Nouvelle édition. Évolution et renouveau du western (1967-1968) / par Jean A. Gili.


Reword examples to read:

The nether world : a novel / George Gissing. – [New edition,

reprinted] / edited, with an introduction, by John Goode.

Schachiapang : a modern revolutionary Peking opera. – May 1970 script / revised collectively by the Peking Opera Troupe of Peking.

The prelude, 1798-1799 / by William Wordsworth ; edited by Stephen Parrish .

Third edition = Tredie udgave / B. Larsen.

Second edition / edited by Larry C. Lewis = Deuxième édition / rédige par Larry C. Lewis.

Tredie nye og stærkt reviderede udgave, 2. oplag /reviderade og udvidet af David Hohnen .

(The impression statement appears as “2. oplag” in the item)

Tredie nye og stærkt reviderede udgave, 2. oplag /reviderade og udvidet af David Hohnen = revised ands enlarged by David Hohnen.

(The impression statement appears as “2. oplag” in the item)


Reword example to read:

Third edition = Tredje upplaga / B. Larsen.


Revise to read:

1.4C3. If the name of the country, state, province, etc., appears in the source of information, give it as found after the name of the place.

Carbondale, Illinois

Harmondsworth, Middlesex

Amherst, Mass.

Optionally, Supply the name of the country, state, province, etc., even if it does not appear in the source of information. Give the name in full and in square brackets.

Toronto [Ontario]

Leipzig [Germany]

Do not transcribe or supply a postal code as it it were a jurisdiction, e.g., [Washington] or [Western Australia] not WA.

[RDA directs transcription as found, with missing jurisdiction in a note ; an option allows providing missing jurisdictions.]


Revise to read:1.4C8. Record the place of production for unpublished items ...

[MARBI has added 264 2nd indicator 0 to MARC21 for "production".]


Revise to read:

1.4D1. Give the name of a publisher distributor, etc., as it is found in the item and following the place(s) to which it relates.

London [England] : Penguin Books

New York, N.Y. : Alfred A. Knopf

Chapel Hill, N.C. : Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill

Newton Abbot, Devon : David & Charles

Chicago [Illinois] : Music Box Films

Mount Vernon, New York : The Peter Pauper Press

New York, N.Y. ; London, England : McGraw-Hill

Montréal [Quebec] ; London, England : Grolier, Inc.

Paris, France ; New York, N.Y. : Studio Canal

Cambridge, Mass. : Da Capo Press, Inc.

New York [New York] ; London [England] ; Sydney, N.S.W. : Macmillan Publishing Company

London [England] : Sussex Tapes ; Wakefield [England] : Educational Productions


Delete first paragraph and examples. Revise as:

1.4D2. If the statement referring to the publisher, distributor, etc., appearing in the item includes descriptive words or phrases that are or include common nouns, omit those words or phrases.

Walter H. Plinger & Company

(appears in item as: from the publishing house of Walter H. Plinger & Company )

Future Vision

( (Appears on item as: brought to you by the folks at Future Vision) )

If the name of the publisher, distributor, etc., appears in more than one language or script, give the form in the language or script of the title proper. If this criterion does not apply (as, for example in the case of a Canadian publication with a title proper that could be either French or English), give the name in the language or script that appears first.

Optionally , give the name in the language or script that appears first. Precede each parallel statement by an equals sign.

Éditions du peuple = Commoners’ Publications

Høst & Søns Forlag = Høst & Son Publisher


Delete fourth example and paragraph b) and examples.




Revise to read:1.4D8. Record the name of the producer for unpublished items ...

[MARBI has added 264 2nd indicator 0 to MARC21 for "production".]


Delete [ GMD ] from last example


Revise to read:

1.4F1. For published items give the year of publication, distribution, etc., of the edition, revision, version, etc., named in the edition area. If there is no edition statement, give the year of the first publication of the edition to which the item belongs. Give the year as found, except when the year is given in numerals used by a non-roman script, in which case give it in arabic numerals. If the year as found is of neither the Gregorian nor the Julian calendar or not in arabic numerals, add the years(s) of the Gregorian or Julian calendars in brackets.

Change fourth example to:

, anno XVIII [1939]

Add to examples:

, MCMLXXXV [1985]

, Ten years after the tyrant’s death [1963]

, LI nc VI t I n I sto M onaster I o re LI g I os V s fr. L an D e LI n V s b I ehe L er I b I

profess V s [1791]


Revise to read:

1.4F2. Give the year as found in the item even if it is known to be incorrect. Add the correct year in brackets.

, 1697 [1967]

Optionally, explain the corrected year in a note (see 1.7B9).

, 1963 [1971]

Note: Originally issued as a disc in 1963; issued as a cassette in 1971.

1.4F5 If the copyright year differs from the year of publication, distribution, etc., give it, preceded by © or ‘p’ as appropriate. If the symbol © is not available, give ‘c’.

, 1988, ©1987

, 2006, p2005

, 2008, c2005


Revise to read:


Revise first example to read:

, ©1999


Revise example to read:

[S.l.] : [s.n.], 1970 (London, England : High Fidelity Sound Studios)

[RDA substitutes phrase in the language of the catalogue for ISBD abbreviations.]

Revise to read:

1.5. Extent of item


Revise to read:

1.5B1. Record the extent of the item by giving the number of units in arabic numerals and the name of the carrier as instructed in sub-rule .5B in the chapter dealing with the type of carrier to which the item belongs.

Revise third example to read:

3 volumes

Add examples:

1 volume (large print)

50 leaves, i.e., 100 pages [numbered leaves printed on both sides; RDA has "that is" for "i.e.']

2 DVDs


1 Blu-ray disc


3 CDs

1 Kobo

1 website

1 streaming video

1 PDF (150 pages)

[RDA “Use a term in common usage (including a trade name, if applicable) to designate the type of unit”.]

[Prefer an exact term, e.g., "PDF" rather than "online resource" which could also mean a website, a streaming video, or a computer game.]

Revise first example to read:

327 pages


Revise examples to read:

1 microfiche (150 frames)

3 volumes (1397 pages)


Revise examples to read:

1 piano roll (about 7 min.)

2 film reels (about 90 min.)


Revise second example to read:

11 sound cassettes (about 30 min. each)


Revise second example to read:



Revise examples to read:

1 filmstrip (70 frames) : black & white

321 pages : illustrations (some coloured)

5 microscope slides : stained

1 sound disc (20 min.) ; analog, 33 1/3 rpm, monophonic

1 model (4 pieces) : polystyrene

[Illustrations and colour content are two elements in RDA; how colour should be recorded in MARC is a matter of debate.]

Revise examples to read:

1 wall chart : coloured ; 24 x 48 cm

321 pages : illustrations (some colour); 23 cm

6 microform reels ; 35 mm

1 CD : digital, stereophonic ; 4 ¾ in.


1 sound disc : digital, stereophonic ; 4 ¾ in.

2 sound discs (1 hr., 15 min.) : analog, 33 1/3 rpm, stereophonic ; 10-12 in.

[Abbreviating inches and minutes are exceptions to RDA 's spelling out of abbreviations.]

Add examples:

45 pages : illustrations (colour) ; 23 cm

50 pages : illustrations (chiefly colour) ; 28 cm


Revise first example to read:

12 paperweights : glass ; 12 cm each in diameter, in box 40 x 50 x 18 cm


Revise first example to read:

Accompanied by: A demographic atlas of north-west Ireland. 38 pages ; coloured maps ; 36 cm. Previously published separately in 1956


Revise examples to read:

387 pages (some colour) ; illustrations ; 27 cm + 1 set of teacher’s notes

32 pages : coloured illustrations ; 28 cm + 7 maps

200 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm + 2 computer discs

271 pages : illustrations ; 21 cm + 1 atlas

1 score (32 pages) ; 26 cm + 3 sound discs

1 computer disc ; 5 14 in. + 1 demonstration disc + 1 set of user’s notes


Revise examples to read:

1 stereograph reel (12 pairs of frames) : colour + 1 volume (12 pages : illustrations ; 18 cm)

1 filmstrip (70 frames) : colour ; 35 mm + 1 volume (39 pages ; 22 cm)

271 pages : illustrations ; 21 cm + 1 atlas (95 pages : 85 colour maps ; 32 cm)


Revise to read:

1.6G. Numbering within series

1.6G1. Give the numbering or other designation of the item within the series in the terms given in the item. Use numerals as instructed in Appendix C.

Historic instruments at the Victoria and Albert Museum ; 4

Beatrix Potter jigsaw puzzles ; number 1

Environment science research ; volume 6

Classic philosophers series ; A

Russian titles for the specialist, ISSN 0305-3741 ; number 78

Corpus général des philosophes français. Auteurs modernes ; texte xli, 1

Alte und neue Kunst ; Band 21

Recent scientific research ; January 1996

Geopolitical statistical data ; CDI

If the numbering or other designation is integrated grammatically with the series title, see 1.6B1.

Revise the remaining examples in 1.6G2 to read:

Kieler historische Studien ; Band 24 [25]

Quellen und Forschungen zur Litteratur- und Kulturgeschichte ; 1 = 235

UCLA symposia on molecular and cellular biology ; new series, volume 3

Cambridge studies in medieval life and thought ; 4 th series, 30

Research monographs ; [new series], number 1

Chemie und Fortschritt ; [neue Folge], Heft 1


Revise examples to read:

; volumes 11-15

; volumes 131, 145, 152

; volume 3, number 2 (September 1981)


Revise second example to read:

Marian Library studies ; new series, volume 12


Revise first example to read:

Music for today. Series 2 ; no. 8


Revise example to read:

(Video marvels ; number 33) (Educational progress series ; number 3)



Revise second example to read:

“A textbook for sixth form students”—Preface


Revise first example to read:

Set includes booklet: New mathematics guide. 16 pages


Revise second example to read:

Parts 1 and 2 in series: African perspective. Parts 3 and 4 in series: Third World series. Part 5 in both series


Revise second example to read:

Contents: volume 1. Plain tales from the hills – volumes 2-3. Soldiers three and Military tales – volume 4. In black and white – volume 5. The phantom ‘rickshaw and other stories – volume 6. Under the deodars. The story of the Gadsbys. Wee Willie Winkie


Revise first example to read:

Superintendent of Documents number: I 19.16:818


Revise examples to read:

Manuscript notes by author on endpapers

Lacks last 15 minutes of recording

Library set lacks slides 7-9

Library has volumes 1, 3-5, and 7

Accessible after 2020

For graduate students only


Revise example to read:

Facsimile of: A classification and subject index for cataloguing and arranging the books and pamphlets of a library. Amherst, Mass. : [s.n.], 1876 (Hartford, Conn. : Case, Lockwood & Brainard). 44 pages ; 25 cm


Revise second example to read:

With: Sonata in G, op. 1, no. 5 / Carlo Francesco Chabran – Sonata number 1 in B flat / Pietro Nardini


Revise examples to read:

Description based on: Part 2, published 1998

Description based on: Volume 1, number 3 (August 1999)

Latest issue consulted: 1999/10


Revise fourth example to read:

Completed publication with volume 6


Revise first, fourth, and fifth examples to read:

Scale of original: 1:6000?

Volume numbering irregular

Numbering begins each year with number 1


Revise examples to read:

ISBN 0-435-91660-2 (cased). – ISBN 0-435-91661-0 (paperback)

ISBN 0-387-08266-2 (U.S.). – ISBN 3-540-08266-2 (Germany)

ISBN 0-684-14258-9 (bound) : $12.50. – ISBN 0-684-14257-0 (paperback) : $6.95

ISBN 0-7725-0344-X (paperback) : $8.75


Revise example to read:

$10.00 (paperback)


Revise examples to read:

48 photographs : black & white ; 20 x 16 cm + 1 volume

5 volumes : illustrations, facsimiles, portraits ; 32 cm + 1 atlas (135 pages ; 32 cm)

Accompanied by supplement (37 pages) issued in 1971

The Nonesuch Dickens /published under the editorial direction of Arthur Waugh … [and 3 others]. – Bloomsbury : Nonesuch, 1937-1938. – 23 volumes : illustrations ; 26 cm

The Nonesuch Dickens. Retrospectus and prospectus. – 1937. – 130 pages : illustrations, facsimiles ; 26 cm. – Contains facsimile pages from various editions of The Pickwick papers


Revise examples to read:

47 slides : coloured ; 5 x 5 cm + 1 sound cassette

3 volumes : illustrations ; 30 cm

Note: disc (12 min. ; analog, 45 rpm, monophonic ; 7 in.) in pocket at end of volume 3

Revise examples to read:

Beyond the reading list : guidelines for research in the humanities / C.P. Ravilious ; University of Sussex Library. – Brighton, England : University of Sussex Library, Audio-Visual Materials Room [distributor], 1975.

46 slides : coloured

1 sound cassette (15 min.) : analog, monophonic

Summary: The bibliographic control of the humanities, with special reference to literature. A typical research project is followed through. – Intended audience: Post-graduates and research students.

Hot deserts / Ruth Way. – London, England ; Toronto, Ontario : Visual Publications, [1975?]

1 filmstrip (39 frames) : colour ; 35 mm

1 sound cassette (about 18 min.) : analog, monophonic

4 study prints : colour ; 29 x 88 cm, folded to 29 x 44 cm

1 volume (15 pages) ; 22 cm

1 folded sheet (4 pages) ; 22 cm

(The Earth & man. The Earth without man ; 4). – Pictures on filmstrip and study prints identical. – Cassette has automatic and manual advance signals